Continuing what we started…What is the relationship between a critic and a text? (Prompt 7)

Posted in prompts at 1:18 pm by Dominique



The Critic as Host, a deconstructionist approach to reading and criticism, by J. Hillis Miller (1977)

Hi all,

The links above are those that I was hoping to project during Thursday’s class. Please take a look at both the critical chronology handout and the Miller reading, “The Critic as Host,” which we referenced in class. I am excited by how quickly many of you “latched on” to Miller’s claims and hope that this reading provides a new way for you to conceptualize how a deconstructionist critic–and perhaps critics in general–thinks about relationships between critics and texts, critics and other critics, and texts and their predecessors. The piece above, by MIller, is short and well worth reading in full!

Now, a technology update (can you hear my teeth gnashing?): We’ll have someone from tech services in our room on Tuesday before class who will hopefully help me to resolve once and for all whether it will be possible to rely on the internet connection in our classroom in the future. I am–as you are, I’m know–entirely sick of wasting time in class to try to get the internet to work. In recent conversations with tech services they have told me that the connection in our room in unreliable and, though there is a connection hub in the room right next door, the cinder-block walls in Rathaus can sometimes interfere with the signal coming into our room. We’ll see what our personal tech expert says on Tuesday. The only option may be to connect a cable to a jack in the room and access the internet through a landline rather than the wireless system.

Okay, on to our next task. For this week Kelly Haff and Jesse Goirn have agreed to be our main bloggers. Though the required reading is on post-colonialism (see your syllabus for specifics), which we’ll discuss together on Tuesday, I would like us to continue to work with the critical selections from Heart of Darkness that you were assigned at the end of class on Thursday. Though we’re reading these passages from a deconstructionist perspective when we use Miller and the notion of “binary oppositions,” we might also look at the same passages through a post-colonial lens in class on Tuesday. So, let’s go back to where we left off. Here are the selections you were assigned in class:

Group 1: pages 27-29 (“I left in a French steamer”… “hints for nightmares”)

Group 2: pages 40-42: (“He blew the candle out suddenly”… “the very essence of dreams”)

Group 3: pages 49-51 (“try to be civil Marlow”…  “and no memories”)

Group 4: pages 63-66 (“He went silent for a long time”… “like a claim of distant kinship affirmed in a supreme moment”)

Group 5: pages 84-86 (“The brown current ran swiftly”… “in a muddy hole”) 

By Monday at midnight, Kelly and Jesse will guide us through the in-class exercise by returning to the passages they were assigned in their respective groups and posting a response, of 500-550 words, that address the following questions:  What binary oppositions are implied or assumed in this passage? Of the binaries you’ve mentioned, which one seems most important to address if we are to understand why this passage is relevant to the novel as a whole? For the binary you have chosen, describe the way that its two terms (e.g. savage/civilized, dark/light, god/servant, etc.) “feed off of each other” in one of the ways that Miller describes in his lecture, “The Critic as Host.” Please be sure to quote Miller at least once and to cite the Conrad passage itself at least once as you explain and illustrate how this binary operates, from a deconstructionist perspective, in Conrad’s novel.

Commentators: by Wednesday at midnight, you should do an abbreviated version of this exercise–in 150-200 words–for the passage you were assigned.  If you were not in class, you may choose any of the five passages indicated above to analyze more closely.

All: please be sure to indicate clearly the passage to which you are responding at the top of your post. 

Lastly, I know that many people were hoping to receive their quizzes on Thursday, which was part of our original plan. Some people have emailed me requesting their grades, and I have responded. I will be sure to return your quizzes to you near the end of this Tuesday’s class.

Read–write–and do enjoy this very beautiful fall weekend,


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  1.    khaff88 said,

    October 10, 2011 at 8:49 pm

    In class last Thursday I was assigned to group five, where we discussed the passage relating to Kurtz’s death. One of the binary oppositions that could be assumed are “dream versus reality. The other one could be life versus death.
    The binary opposition that seems the most important is “dream versus reality”. When Marlow witnesses the death of Kurtz, he is burdened with reality, that we all die no matter how remarkable someone may be. Marlow now understands a part of the heart of darkness and he describes Kurtz being buried, “The voice was gone. What else had been there? But I am of course aware that next day the pilgrims buried something in a muddy hole.” Marlow is blunt about the burial and then realizes that he was almost buried himself, “And then they very nearly buried me.” The reality of life coming to an end hits Marlow hard, and he now has to deal with how unpredictable and unsettling life can be. In this novel we read about Marlow constantly battling within himself of the life he wants to live (dream) and the life he is stuck with (reality).
    According to Miller in his lecture “The Critic as Host” there are several different types of parasitic relationships. He states that, “There is no parasite without its host.” A parasite cannot survive if it has nothing to hold onto. In my opinion I see the “dream” binary is the parasite and the “reality” binary is the host. A dream cannot survive without reality. We observe our life and what we have to deal with, like Marlow when he deals with the passing of Kurtz. We dream because it is our escape from the reality, we have the power to change our dreams and to do things that in reality, would hold us back. We would not dream if we did not have reality. Marlow dreams because of where he is in life; he is stuck in a heart of darkness and dreaming is the only escape. A dream thrives for the reality because without reality there would be nothing. Miller states that, “ ‘Para’ as a prefix in English (sometimes ‘par’) indicates alongside, near or beside, beyond, incorrectly, resembling or similar to, subsidiary to, isomeric to, or polymeric to.” Meaning, the word parasite is taken to work with the host; so the binary “dream” works alongside the binary “reality” and may resemble or be similar to it sometimes. The dream feeds off of the reality and gives us an idea of what we want in our dream.

  2.    Terry said,

    October 11, 2011 at 12:16 am

    The group I was in focused on the passage on pages 40-42, where Marlow is speaking with the brickmaster of the Central Station. There are a two binary oppositions that are shown in this particular passage, savagery vs. civility and dreaming vs. reality.
    The passage starts out with Marlow noticing a painting on the wall of a blindfolded woman holding a torch which we later find out was painted by none other than Mr Kurtz. When applied to the scenario in which the story of Heart of Darkness takes place, the painting may symbolize the ‘blind’ Europeans attempt to bring civilization or ‘light’ to the African savages. This brings the first binary opposition into play of savagery vs. civility. The Europeans are attempting to colonize Africa and bring civilization to who they see as savages. This painting also foreshadows Mr. Kurtz’s self-awareness and knowledge of the situation and how being civilized and being a savage aren’t necessarily exclusive.
    The passage goes on in detail of the discussion between the brickmaker. “I let him run on, this papier-mâché Mephistopheles, and it seemed to me that if I tried I could poke my forefinger through him and would find nothing inside but a little loose dirt, maybe.” This quote demonstrates Marlow’s perspective of not only the brickmaker but all the people around him. He views them as these facades that cover up an emptiness inside, suggesting that these civilized men are no better than the ‘savages’. The brickmaker was only trying to get on Marlow’s good side when he thought that Marlow was allied with Mr. Kurtz.
    Later on in the passage, Marlow is ranting on about how he has never personally seen Mr. Kurtz, and how it seems more like a dream than reality. “…it is impossible to convey the life-sensation of any given epoch of one’s existence — that which makes it truth…we live, as we dream alone..”. It is here, in this quote, where Marlow realizes that dreaming and living are actually very much the same. It is hard to express experiences of either one to other people. Everything in life is perception. This binary is more important than savagery versus civility since it spills over into both oppositions. You cannot know for certain who is the savage and who is civilized. Instead, it is just a matter of perceiving it a particular way.
    In the Critic as Host, Miller states, “There is no parasite without its host”. When applied to the binary of dreaming vs. reality, it is clear which one ‘feeds’ off the other. Without a reality, dreams could not exist. Dreams are the way a brain tries to make sense of the reality in a highly symbolic way. The information obtained when conscious in reality is taken and used in dreams to form new ideas about the world. Without the input there would be no output.

  3.    emina said,

    October 11, 2011 at 8:31 pm

    During our last class, I was in group 3 and we were assigned to analyze from page 49-51. There were two main binaries that stood out to us the most while reading. “Earth/ Un-earthly” and “Human/Inhuman”. Both of these binaries are found on page 51, in the middle starting with “The earth seemed unearthly”. As soon as my group and I came across this we automatically agreed that this on its own seemed to be a binary. Earth standing for everything that is right and nice compared to unearthly standing for “monsters” as referred to in the book. I automatically assumed that the monsters that were being referred to are actually the savages. Especially since the men are the ones who are inhuman. “mind of a man is capable of anything..” Conrad continues to question the beliefs, principles and truth of these men and tries to get the reader to question it too.
    From a Post-colonialism view, I would want too expose the other voices that are not being heard in this story. The “men” which Conrad is referring to as savages, what is there story, and if they were the ones telling this story maybe the reader would have a different perspective while reading. We only know what Conrad is telling us, but the things he keeps quiet about are the things that us readers should be interested about as well.

  4.    amark916 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 12:05 am

    Last Thursday I was apart of Group one. We were required to dissect pages 27-29. In this passage Marlowe discusses the sea and also discusses his encounters with the “Savages” at sea. The binary oppositions in this passage are Civilized/Savage, Good/Evil, Dark/Light, and Morality/Immorality. The four binaries chosen are all very relevant in the novel, but I believe the most relevant in the book is Civilized/Savage. Civilized is definitely looked at the hierarchy of the two. J Hillis Miller states that “the two words are separated by strange logic of the ‘para’ membrane which divides inside from outside and yet joins the two words in a bond, making strangers friends and the dissimilar similar.” When Marlowe recollects meeting the savages at see, he states that “They shouted, sang; their bodies screamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks—-these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of movement, that was as natural and true as the surf along their coast. They wanted no excuse for being there. They were a great comfort to look at.” Civilized/Savage are feeding off or each other is this particular text. Conrad shows that the ‘Savages’ behave ‘Civilized’. They are humans with skin, bone, and muscle and they possess qualities of human beings. They are not animals. They are not the ones behaving in an uncivilized manner. From a deconstructionist perspective, the text can be interpreted in many different ways. We observed in the text how this particular binary becomes parasitic because the two feed of one another creating ambiguity in the text. Savage can now be civilized and vice versa.

  5.    awilliams108 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 11:46 am

    On Thursday 6th, October 2011 I was assigned to Group one, pages 27-29. The opposition’s binary that were implied or assumed in this passage was, Good/Evil, Educated/uneducated, and Civilized/Savages. Of these binaries mentioned Civilized/Savages was most important to address in the passage and that was relevant in the novel. Civilized/Savages, came about, on (Conrad, 20), the opposition civilized and uncivilized is basically a course of good and evil. The primitive ‘Savage’ was the description as dark, which was related to skin colour, also the attitude. Marlow called the natives at the first station “black shadow of disease and starvation.
    The chosen binary, Civilized/Savages, feed off each other In the J. Hillis Miller “The Critic as Host”. Parasites to her extend was “the one of those words which calls up its apparent opposite”. Meaning there is no paraside without any host or the main character. J Hillis mention that “Para” is where something is similar or resemble each other. For Conrad, he put it to words that one-man garbage is anther man treasure. As a new Critic, one has to know how to go about a reading using binaries on different prompts. Deconstructing a prompt with different ‘difference’ or binary helps a reader dig into meaning, for example “Ain’t I a Woman” by Sojourner truth. This poem would have a lot of binaries hidden or spotted in it.
    In my point of view, Joseph Conrad binary terms of opposition have convey the theme that every man has his own heart of darkness, which simply means that a masked of superficial light of civilization, or as to where everyone isn’t perfect.

  6.    marissae17 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 2:07 pm

    During class I was assigned to group 5, pages 84-86. As Kelly mentioned, one of the group binaries that we came up with for our reading was ‘dream vs. reality’. As a group we felt that this was one of the major binaries of the section because Marlow is constantly fighting the battle of what he wants his life to be like and the life that he is actually living. I found what Kelly said about Millers statement on the meaning of ‘Para’ to be interesting. She compares it with the binary of dream vs. reality so that one doesn’t exist without the other. In class on Tuesday we spoke about one binary being more important and significant than the other. In this case, I feel that the reality aspect of it is more important because without reality, you cannot have a dream.

  7.    acervinaro90 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 4:27 pm

    During class I was assigned to group number 3 and we were to analyze pages 49-51. As Emina mentioned my group and I came up with two main binaries. As we were reading the passage one of my group members grabbed our attention toward page 51 where we came up with the binaries for our section. The first binary we got directly from the text when Conrad writes “The earth seemed unearthly.” Earth vs. unearthly is a very obvious binary because when we think about the earth we think of beautiful living creatures, everything green, and large bodies of water. Instead Conrad continues to write about monsters and darkness which is the opposite of what I just stated. Soon after we came up with this binary we found another one which is connected human vs. inhuman. Conrad writes “It was unearthly, and the men were —- No, they were not inhuman.” He is questioning the humanity of these men who are howling and jumping everywhere. He makes us think whether or not these man or inhuman. He is questioning whether or not these people are like us because they are acting irrational. These were the binaries that really stuck out to us because he talks a lot about the savages throughout the story and in this passage he is basically questioning their humanity.

  8.    Dominique said,

    October 12, 2011 at 7:24 pm

    Excellent, thoughtful work, Kelly and Jesse — and useful contributions from the commentators who have replied to them thus far. Hoping to see more soon. Keep it up, everyone!

  9.    nadiab said,

    October 12, 2011 at 7:34 pm

    During last Thursday class, I was assigned to group two where we had to analyze pages 40-42 in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. One of the binaries that were evident in these assigned pages was dreaming/reality. In one of the passages Marlow says, “He was just a word for me. I did not see the man in the name any more than you do. Do you see him? Do you see the story? Do you see anything? It seems to me I am trying to tell you a dream— making a vain attempt, because no relation of a dream can convey the dream- sensation.” (pg 42) In this passage, Marlow can’t converse the same feelings he has for Kurtz to his listeners. For Marlow, speaking about Kurtz brings the same feeling as dreaming. He gets a dream like sensation in discussing Kurtz. The dream like sensations is of importance than the reality of Kurtz he is trying to communicate. Since Heart of Darkness is told through Marlow’s point of view, the reader is left like the listeners in his story. Since we can’t see the reality of what he is speaking about, it is left on Marlow to try to communicate the same sensations he has within him. However, since it is difficult to arouse the same feelings that one is conveying, the reader is left to obtain their own interpretation of reality in the story which may have a varied of sensations. In response to J. Hillis Miller article on “The Critic as Host”, the binaries dreaming/ reality in Heart of Darkness do feed off one another. Marlow wants to describe the reality of Kurtz while at the same time conveying the dream like sensations that he is having in his description of Kurtz. The reality of Kurtz is that of a dream that Marlow can’t simply describe because of the sensations he feels within.

  10.    beezy said,

    October 12, 2011 at 8:40 pm

    Also being a member of group five, along with main blogger Kelly, I really liked how she broke down the passage we were assigned last week. According to Miller, “There is no parasite without its host.” A parasite cannot survive if it has nothing to hold onto. I really liked how Kelly said that she sees the “dream” binary as the parasite and the “reality” binary as its host, wherein a dream cannot survive without reality. This powerful binary set the tone to a degree. The dream of being a God, and the reality of being but a mere mortal like everybody else. Kurtz was in command of all that was around him, a supreme being, or a God so to speak. This new world of ‘Darkness’ he was engulfed in was far from reality. Nobody to tell Kurtz what to do, no rules to follow, no punishments for his actions/decisions. This dream/ambition Kurtz had throughout his rule all came crashing down once the reality of death set in. Marlowe recalls how he “saw on that ivory face the expression of sombre pride, of ruthless power, of craven terror- of an intense and hopeless despair.” (p.85) Kurtz final words, simply condemning “The Horror!”, his realization that he wouldn’t make it out of the ‘Heart of Darkness’ alive, brought about the very real death of a man who was viewed as a God by those who followed him.

    -Enes Mrkulic

  11.    jruiz104 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 8:49 pm

    Jose Ruiz
    English 170W
    My Group and I were responsible for pages 27-29. In passage on page 27-28 we concluded two binary that were Civilized/Savages and Good/ Evil. In the quote “They shouted, sang their bodies streamed with perspiration, faces like grotesque masks, had bone, muscle, and a wild intense energy” the natives were portray as savages. In mist of how they are described you can conclude that they barely had any clothes on. On the other hand, the European soldiers were dress in uniform and when they encounter the savages they didn’t act uncivilized. In the second binary Good and Evil the European were described as Evil I thought because they landed and encounter the camp of native and soon after they called these savages their enemies. In the addition, I portray the natives to be Good because they were trying to scare off the unwelcome visitors that were trespassing their land.

  12.    victoriane said,

    October 12, 2011 at 9:30 pm

    I was assigned group 4: pages 63-66. In page 64 we can assume the binary opposition is ivory/ black. Marlow is talking about Mr. Kurtz and his obsession with the ivory found in the black mud in the village where the black people lived. He states, “ It had taken him, loved him, embraced him…The old mud shanty was bursting with it. I think this is a very important binary opposition from this passage because it sets the mood for the rest of the story. Mr. Kurtz treats the black villagers horribly for the ivory that is in their land. He wants what belongs to the blacks although he is racist of their being. He says the ivory belongs to him even though he had to travel to a foreign land and force people to work for him. This opposition of ivory/black can also be assumed for the color of the people in the story. The ivory (white) Europeans and the black villagers from the Congo.

  13.    terrylghong said,

    October 12, 2011 at 10:23 pm

    I was in Group 2 last Thursday. In our group, we all agreed on one main binary opposition at pages 40-42 which was dream/reality. Jesse makes a good point on how dream/reality is pretty much the same. We can’t tell who is the savage and who is civilized. In my opinion, the dream of the colonizers are get rich and rule those areas, as a result, the reality is most of them died with diseases. On the other hand, the native somehow survive. So dream/reality is very hard to separate here. The relationship is like a host and a parasite. That is, according to The Critic as Host by J. Hillis Miller. He stated that “Each contains, necessarily, its enemy within itself, is itself both host and parasite.” A dream is something you are wishing for. I will say it is a new (better) reality. Without a reality and you won’t have a dream.

  14.    GordonWTam said,

    October 12, 2011 at 10:50 pm

    I happened to be a part of group 5, on pages 84-86. It’s in this passage Kurtz dies, and there are many binaries present to discuss. One in particular that presents itself through the whole story is light vs dark. (Or good vs evil) Throughout this passage, there are many references to things that are light, like Kurtz’s “ivory face” before he dies, A “light” being right before his eyes. There are mentions of dark things, such as the “barren darkness of his [Kurtz] heart” and impenetrable darkness. All these lines are skewed, since we never really thought of Kurtz as evil, making the darkness seem less bad. The light in this case both refers to Kurtz about to die, and makes the light seem more evil. I think deconstructing that particular binary stresses the lines between good and evil in this whole story.

  15.    joshuak314 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 10:52 pm

    Civility/savagery and dream/reality were the two binaries which our group(group 2) discussed and though most important in our assigned passage. Between the two, the binary of civility/savagery was most relevant to the novel as a whole. Heart of Darkness seemed more like an informative essay in which the author Joseph Conrad attempted to show life outside of Europe; the life of people who were not civilized. His definition of civilized is definitely different from our current understanding of what civilized is. This is the reason heart of darkness was criticized later on. The definition of civility changed and therefore, the definition of savagery changed. What was once acceptable was considered atrocious later on. Due to changes like this, our view of the binary of civility/savagery is very different from that of people during the 19th century when this was written. While the people of the past probably viewed the Africans as savage and the Europeans as civilized, we view the Europeans as savage and the Africans to be closer to our current definition of civilized.

  16.    emendoza said,

    October 12, 2011 at 11:14 pm


    Re: Group 4, 63-66

    The binaries in this selection of text include, but are not limited to, civilized/savages, humanity/deities, light/darkness (although this one is apparent throughout the entire novel). Of the various binaries apparent in this section, i believe the most relevant one to the text as a whole is the civilized/savages binary opposition. in these few pages, Marlow mentions something that piqued his interest from Kurtz’ pamphlet, that it was written so eloquently, but at the very last page, “scrawled evidently much later, in an unsteady hand… ‘Exterminate all the brutes!'” (Conrad 66). This is notable in that it is a reflective event of the novel in its entirety. Contrary to his own belief, Kurtz is acting/thinking very savagely in regards to the savages that he conquered, and his desire to “exterminate” the brutes only further emphasizes his drifting away from civility. Conrad cleverly uses this binary by allowing them to feed off each other; without the brutes, Kurtz would have no reason to fall into his savage ways of thinking, and without the “civilized,” there would be no “standard” for the brutes to be compared to–in other words, the brutes don’t see themselves as any less beings than any other humans until these “civilized” people arrive on their soil.

  17.    brianfinnerty91 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 11:27 pm

    During last Thursdays class I was assigned to Group #1 which focused on pages 27-29 in the text. The two binaries we worked with were good/evil and civilized/savages. The binaries of good and evil and civilized and savages are shown in these 3 pages. In class my group discussed who was portrayed as evil and who was seen as good. We determined that the natives who were mainly slaves were seen as good and the white Europeans were seen as evil because of their attitude towards the natives. The Europeans are seen as civilized when it came to the clothes they wore but when it came to being polite they were nothing of it. They looked down upon the natives and treated them unfairly. The natives were seen as savages in the 3 pages that we were assigned. On page 29 the natives are described as “mostly black and naked” and “moved about like ants” (Conrad 29). Because they had few clothes on and did not appear “fashionable” or worthy they were seen as savages. From this line we can compare ants to savages because once they see a piece of food they all attack it in groups like they have never eaten before. Ants can compare to the natives because they had a very limited diet because there was little or no food for them.

    -Brian Finnerty

  18.    kocampo100 said,

    October 12, 2011 at 11:50 pm

    I was assigned for Group 3 and it was unanimous amongst the entire group that the binaries for this passage is Savaged vs Civilized. On page 51, the paragraph that begins with “The earth seemed unearthly.” gave away that the rest would explain the binaries. The line that stood out to me most was “They howled and leaped, and spun, and made horrid faces..” I took this as acting in a savage way which is weird because the narratore later on explains how that was actually apart of their humanity.

    Miller mentioned “There is no parasite without a host”. Looking into Conrad’s text with the understand of what a host can possibly mean, I think for the binaries of savaged vs civilized, this interpretation of a host made the most sense. For the text iin or order to differentiate who the savaged were, the reader also had to determine who the civilized were. I think the opposing binaries go hand in hand with each other.

  19.    rasuli said,

    October 12, 2011 at 11:57 pm

    On Thursday I was assigned to Group 4, we had to go through pages 63-66 to find any binary oppositions that feed off each other. One important binary that I came across was light/dark. The contrast between light and dark is very important to the theme of universal darkness. On page 64 the 8th line (It is extremely long), we are given a description of Kurtz through Marlow (Conrad) that shows us how he is making Kurtz this illuminating figure. Marlow’s love for ivory just makes us think of the color white. And since Kurtz who is unaware of his own “darkness” possesses Ivory and is in pursuit of more Ivory, the white ivory symbolizes all the falsehoods and corruption in the world. Therefore “white,” which is usually the more “important” of the binary, represents the bad, and “darkness” like the natives, represents the innocence and pureness of man kind. However, it can also be said that, Kurtz is this “dark” figure in pursuit of Ivory, which represents the natives since they are innocent and the color white represents purity. ”Heart of Darkness” is a frame novel and these binaries feed off each other to provide the necessary framework for the critic to “latch on” to.

  20.    seng101 said,

    October 13, 2011 at 12:02 am

    Group 2: pg 40-42

    The binaries found on these pages are civil/savage and dream/consciousness. The most important binary would be the dream/consciousness. In the quote “it seems to me I am trying to telling you a dream –making a vain attempt, because no relation of a dream can convey the dream-sensation.”(42), Marlow states that his attitude towards Kurtz is so indescribable that it would be like telling someone what it’s like to dream. His attitude towards Kurtz can be related to the reader in a sense that we as readers don’t know the characters personally. Describing them would not do much for the reader other than knowing what the physical features of the character are. The Marlow himself is also baffled at how anyone else can describe the Kurtz, but through his constant dismay of reality in what is happening that through this little narration we have learned a something about Marlow as a opposed to Kurtz.

  21.    cass88163 said,

    October 13, 2011 at 1:19 am

    Group four (p.63-66) came up with several binary opposition one being civil/savage. Marlow’s notion of Kurtz seemed to be some what civilized, at first of course. He hears of Kurtz being this powerful, well educated man; “The International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs had entrusted him with the making of a report…I’ve read it. It was eloquent, vibrating with eloquence”. Marlow perspective changes however, the report concluded, ‘Exterminate all the Brutes’. it prevailed the iniquitous side of Kurtz, in which Marlow first mis judged. It is said that the parasite cannot survive if it has nothing to hold onto, therefore in order for one to exist, the other is essential. The savage report directing for the brutes to be exterminated, vindicates just how uncivilized Kurtz character really is.

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